"Radio Bikini" Video Transcripts by Richard Kucera (kucera@nlm.nih.gov)

WITHOUT A DOUBT:  Classic Quotes from Operation Crossroads

In 1946,  U.S. military forces exploded two bombs in the Bikini atoll
in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.  The quotes which follow came from 
the media blitz which accompanied the "event",  Operation Crossroads.  
They have been excerpted from the film documentary,  "Radio Bikini",  
by Robert Stone.

Research Sources:
Archives Project
Defense Nuclear Agency
Defense Audio-Visual Agency
20th Century Fox Movietone News, Inc.
National Archives
Petrified Films
Sherman-Grinberg Film Library
Steamline Film Archive

"7:00pm eastern war-time,  Bob Chauff reporting.  The Japanese
have accepted our terms fully.  That's the word we've just received
from the White House in Washington.  This,  ladies and gentlemen,
is the end of the Second World War."

"Ladies and gentlemen,  the President of the United States...
A short time ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima.
That bomb has more power then twenty thousand tons of TNT.  It is
an atomic bomb.  It is a harnessing of the basic power of the
universe.  Having found the atomic bomb, we have used it.  It is
an awful responsibility which has come to us.  We thank God that
it has come to us instead of to our enemies,  and we pray that He
may guide us to use it in His ways and for His purposes."

"[slap] Action!  The atom bomb is here.  It exists.  We must look
to the future.  Up until now, only three have been exploded and
none over the water.  It is the duty of the military services to
explore the military might of this new weapon.  We want to be 
prepared for any use of atomic energy that may become necessary,
whether offensive or defensive."

"An American came to Bikini.  He said he was the most powerful man
in the world.  He said he wanted to drop a bomb on Bikini.  He said
America wanted to use Bikini and that we would have to leave."
--Kilon Bauno,  Chief of the Bikinians
"Now then James tell them please that, uh, the United States 
Government, now, wants to turn this great destructive power into
something for the *benefit* of man*kind*.  And that these experiments
here at Bikini are the *first step* in that direction."

"We really didn't know what was going on.  We were very confused.
They were taking many pictures of us.  But at that time I didn't even
know what a camera was.  I couldn't understand why they had to do
everything so many times."  --Kilon Bauno

"Crossroads, scene 25 take 1! [slap!] Well now then James will you
*tell* them that the United States Government.  Now wants to turn
this *great* destructive force into something *good* for mankinda?
[slap!] something *good* for mankind?  [slap!]  something *good*
for man*kind*.  Alright.  Is that alright?  Alright?  OK cut it!"

"It is difficult for me to express how sad I was as we were leaving.
We looked back and saw them burning all of our houses [no footage
of this] They burned everything.  Even the outriggers we had to
leave behind [military footage shows an outrigger being carefully
hoisted onto a ship].  As we left,  a great sadness came over us.
We were so sad that nobody ate anything as they moved us from
Bikini to the Island of Rongerik. [again footage and radio coverage
don't present the sad picture--they show only friendly,  welcoming,
singing "natives"] --Kilon Bauno

"How many cameras are going to be used on this operation here?
Uh,  there'll be a hundred-n-4 still cameras,  208 motion picture
cameras.  Well,  some of our statisticians have computed that we're
going make as many pictures in the first, uh, several seconds as
are made in 11, uh, hollywood productions.  That's a lot of footage.
What would it run to in, uh, weight?  We brought over 18 tons so
we'd have enough."

"We are speaking to you from the Island of Bikini.  We think this
is a rather auspicious occasion,  because of the fact that this
is probably the first time,  and no doubt the last,  that a radio
station will broadcasting from Bikini.  This island has been read
about and told about and you've seen pictures of it in the papers
in the magazines and over the radio for the past several months.
Now,  this is an actual broadcast from this location."

"Everybody was on a sort of a good attitude.  I thought we were.
I was.  We thought this was wonderful the way they were treatin' us
there.  And had all the ice cream we could eat.  And we had some of
this whatch-you-call-this 3-2 beer.  And, uh, tryin' to cool off
with that."  --Navy serviceman,  died of cancer in 1983,  extremities
               progressively amputated over the years due to massive
               unexplained swelling.

"Congressman Engel,  what interests you most about this test?...
I'm interested in the effect of a blast upon the enemies.  Because
by studying such effects,  we will learn approximately what may
happen to humans in the event they are exposed to atomic attack."

"We scientists who have released this immense power,  have overwhelming
responsibility to bring realization to America that mankind's destiny
is being decided today, now,  this moment.  We ask your help in this
fateful moment assign that we scientists do not stand alone."

"I agree."  -- A. Einstein

"For late reports on the atom bomb test at Bikini stay tuned to
your mutual station. We take you now to New York...This, uh, Security
Council chamber is as packed as it's never been before to listen to
this historic declaration as the government of the United States
is about to present its plan for the world control of atomic energy.
And, now we give you, Mr. Bernard Baruch,  the American delegate to
the United Nations Commission on Atomic Energy...My fellow members
of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commision and my fellow citizens
of the world,  we are here to make a choice between the quick and
the dead.  That is our business.  Behind that black portent of the
new atomic age lies a hope which, seized upon with faith, can work
our salvation.  If we fail,  then we have damned everyman to be the
slave of fear.  Now, if ever,  is the time to act for the common good.
We of this nation realizing the heavy obligations upon us arising
from our possession of the means of producing the bomb, and from
the fact that it is a part of our armament,  are prepared to make 
our full contribution toward effective control of atomic energy."

"The Baruch Plan is not in the interest of the United Nations.
There exists another plan for the atomic bomb proposed by the
Soviet Union.  In the heart of our plan lies a completely different
arrangement.  We the people of the Soviet Union do not have any
future plans for an atomic bomb." --Vyacheslaw Molotov,  Soviet
Foriegn Minister

"Mr. Molotov's speech indicated distrust and misunderstanding of
the motives of the United States and of *other* members of the United
Nations.  Our motives, in war and peace,  we leave to the judgement
of history." --Warren Austin, U.S. delegate to the U.N.

"All I know is what they told us at the time.  They needed to drop
the bomb on Bikini to see what would happen in case there was
another world war.  They said they needed to do this to keep all the
*other* nations under control.  This is why they dropped the bomb
on my island."  --Kilon Bauno

"I know that you'll be interested as I will be to see the test
tomorrow.  And I know that you are aware that, uh,  they are conducted
in not any frivolous or casual fashion.  That, uh, they do not
constitute a-any gesture of war or of aggression or threat.  Thank
you very much.[clap clap clap go the foreign delegates from France,
Mexico, etc.]" --James Forrestal, U.S. Secretary of the Navy

"Experiment provides experience.  Experience fortifies theory.
Knowledge is power.  The way is clear--the challenge strong--
the duty inescapable.  We must have the facts.  Common sense
calls for the facts.  Now."

"The time has come to send the atom bomb by air to Bikini.
To burst in cosmic fury over an anchored fleet [composed] 
of American, Japanese, and German Naval vessels.  The most
explosive experiment in history is about to begin...40 miles
per hour...80...now 120...he's up!  The plane is airborne!  
The atom bomb is in the air on its way to Bikini!  For the
greatest experiment,  the most explosive experiment in 

"At this time NBC interrupts its regular program schedule to
bring you a history making broadcast.  The actual dropping of the
bomb at Bikini.  In a matter of minutes not an army superfortress
will drop that bomb on target ships Bikini lagoon.  There are
those who predict it may be the last such test if nations now
can agree to outlaw the bomb.  The United Nations Atomic Energy
Commission now is analyzing that problem,  and the world waits
to see whether there can be a compromise between our own plan
for controlling atomic energy and that of Soviet-Russia."

"Crossroads,  scene 1,  take 1, A Day Burst, USS Padamin [slap!]"

"12 11 10 9 all green! 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0...[BOOM!]"

"I thought it was great." --veteran, 1977

"*Congressman* Ezak[?],  what was your first general impression
of the explosion of the atomic bomb a few moments ago?...
It was one of *keen disappointment* I'll say.  It looked to me
as if the Navy department thought members of congress would
get too close and that they do not consider us expendable."

"It struck me as the most awe-inspiring and magnificent man-made
spectacle I have ever seen in my life."

"It put me pretty much in mind of the,  uh, setting sun."

"It seemed like a huge, giant firecracker."

"The National Broadcasting Company interrupts all its programs
to bring you a special broadcast...a few hours ago the atomic
bomb was dropped on the target in Bikini.   Aboard this vessel
which carries the *scientific* observers and United Nations
representatives there is, without a doubt, a *keen sense of
disappointment*.  Disappointment with what we witnessed this
morning.  It was a successful experiment for the army and navy,
but from twenty miles away, it was a pretty poor spectacle."

"Uh,  the ships were turned in every direction--the ones
that were left" --Navy serviceman's impression of ground zero

"We were never told about any radioactive exposure...
In fact we didn't really know what the word was." --Enlisted Man

"Out here in the peaceful pacific, where the natives sit,  in their
courtesy,  and in their friendliness,  with their smiles,  with
their happiness,  they aren't sure exactly what the atom bomb means,
but at least they admit it...so you have "You are my Sunshine"
sung to you in Marshalese, perhaps the top tune of the week,  you
might say, out here on the tiny isle of Rongerik."

"The bomb will not start a chain reaction in the water, converting
it all to gas,  and letting all the ships on all the oceans drop
down to the bottom.  It will not blow out the bottom of the sea
and let all the water run down the hole.  It will not destroy
gravity.  I am not an atomic playboy." 
--Vice Admiral Blandy,  Crossroads Commander

"10 seconds...5 4 3 2 1 [boom!]"

"I can see nothing at all of the target vessels--they are all
completely obliterated by the radioactive spray that is in the
air...an entirely different shape than the classic design of
mushroom which we knew."

"They came and gave us pictures of the bomb.  Of course back then
I had no idea what an atomic bomb was.  None of us had any idea
what it was or that it would do such harm to our island...There
is nothing in my life I want more than to go home to Bikini.
The reason I can't go back is because the Americans tell me there
is 'poison' there. I don't understand this but that is what the
Americans say.  This[Rongerik] is not my island.  I want to go back
to my paradise where God intended us to be.  I am asking America
to take us home.  I want to go back to my island to live out
my final days." --Kilon Bauno

"There's no question in my mind,  that of all the things that went
on in Operation Crossroads was me, uh, it was a slow death from
that time to this date.  Not only me but there's other thousands
of men out there that may be worse off than I am.  There's so
many thousands of those men that are dead now,  and they don't really
know what caused there death."  --Ex-Enlisted Navy serviceman

"And Action!...The search of science for the absolute weapon has
reached fruition in this country.   But we stand ready to destroy
this instrument.  Let us not deceive ourselves.  We must select 
world peace or world destruction...Cut!" --Bernard Baruch

Kilon Bauno and his people remain as refugees scattered throughout
the Marshall Islands.

The End.

Radioactivity and Health(R&H), 1988,
by J Newell Stannard,  DOE
Office of Health and Environmental Research
under Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830

The immense volume should be taken with a proportionately
large grain of salt.  In one instance, on page 891:

page 891,  _Radioactivity and Health_(R&H), 1988, 
by J Newell Stannard,  under the auspices of DOE
Office of Health and Environmental Research
under Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830

"Operation Crossroads was intended as partly a
demonstration to the assembled observers[no duh,
the U.N. and "Soviet Russia"] of the awesome power
of the atomic bomb.  Test Able disappointed many.
[they were "keenly disappointed" as I recall :]
Test Baker left no doubts. [guess I picked the
right title, "Without a Doubt" teehee.]
Test Baker also brought the potential problems
of short- and long-term contamination from fallout
vividly front and center.  Fortunately,  through
careful planning, no human being was seriously
contaminated or hurt by the radioactivity in these
operations.  Kudos go to all concerned,  particularly
the personnel from the medical department of the MED
and the medical and support staffs from the U.S. Navy
with help from the Public Health Service(PHS) and
the Army."

Obviously,  these statements are demonstrably false.
Is this 1988?  _Radio Bikini_ pre-dates this denial
by a few years if I'm not mistaken.

Also,  in R&H, the author claims that the Navy waited
three(3) days for radioactivity levels to decrease
before the recovery of animals and instruments began
in earnest at ground zero.  Once again,  this is a false
statement.  The navy enlisted man interviewed in
_Radio Bikini_ states that they waited at most
a few hours,  if I'm not mistaken,  and then proceeded
to ground zero and began boarding the target vessels.